Interplanetary Magnetic Field

Interplanetary Magnetic Field
March 19 2019, 16:55 UTC
Bz level 4.36 nT north
Bt level 5.89 nT
The solar magnetic field not only surrounds the Sun itself, the solar wind carries it out into the solar system to form the interplanetary magnetic field or IMF.

The strength of the interplanetary magnetic field is given a value called Bt and is measured in nanoTesla (nT). The north-south direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz) plays an important role in the formation of Northern Lights. When the north-south direction of IMF flips south, the magnetic field lines connect to the earth’s magnetosphere which faces north.  A rift opens that allows the solar wind to pour into our magnetosphere. Bz becomes negative, for example –10nT, which is a good sign that auroras will start to appear.

So, when you are out chasing the northern lights, watch the orientation of the IMF closely. When it flips south, odds are that northern lights are visible overhead.